金榜之路
学大陪你
个性化辅导
关于我们  |  联系我们

初三上册重点英语语法:语法时态

来源:网络     时间:2021-06-28     

英语一直是非常重要的一门学科,所以说学好英语是特别的关键,但是学起英语来并不是一件非常容易的事,有些英语的语法知识是需要及时掌握的,今天给大家归纳总结了几个英语语法知识来一起学习。

语法时态

语法:直接引语变间接引语。

直接引用别人的话叫直接引语,用来转述别人的话叫间接引语。例:

He said, "He will go to Beijing tomorrow." (直接引语)

He said that he would go to Beijing the next day.

直接引语变间接引语时时态、人称及一些时间或个别词都要做相应的改变。

①时态:

一般现在时→一般过去时 一般将来时→过去将来时

现在进行时→过去进行时 一般过去时→过去完成时

现在完成时→过去完成时

* 但真理性的句子时态不变。例:

He said: "The sun rises in the east."

He said that the sun rises in the east.

他说太阳从东方升起。

②时间:

now→then, last month→the month before.

today→ that day, three days ago→three days before.

tonight→that night, tomorrow→the next day.

yesterday→the day before, the day after tomorrow→in two days.

③其它变化:

this→that these→those here→there

come→go

句式的改变:

①直接引语是陈述句加"that"可以省去。例:

He said, "My sister was here three days ago."→

He said that his sister had been there three days before.

②直接引语是一般疑问句,变成用if/whether引导的宾语从句,人称时态等作相应改变。

Mother asked me, "Did you buy any meat for lunch?"→

Mother asked me if/whether I had bought some meat for lunch.

③直接引语是特殊问句,变成由原来疑问词一样的连接词引导的宾语从句,时态人称等作相应改变。例:

"What do you do?" he asked me.

He asked me what I did.

④直接引语是选择问句变成由whether或if引导的宾语从句。

"Do you like English or Chinese?" He asked me.

He asked me whether I liked English or Chinese.

语法:被动语态

1.英语中动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态

主动语态表示主语是谓语动词动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语动词动作的承受者。

当我们强调谁是某个动作的执行者,即"谁做了某种事情"时,用主动语态。

eg: Daniel bought a new computer 丹尼尔买了一台新电脑。(不是别人)

如果主语不是动作的执行者,而是动作的承受者时,就是被动语态。

eg: A new computer was bought by Daniel 一台新电脑被丹尼尔买了。

被动语态的谓语由be + 动词的过去分词构成,其中be是助动词,随时态改变。

一般现在时的被动语态由"am / is / are +动词的过去分词"构成。

一般过去时的被动语态由"was / were +动词的过去分词"构成。

2.被动语态的用法:

当不知道或没必要说明动作的执行者时,用被动语态。

eg: Rice is grown in South China. 华南种植水稻。(没必要说明是谁种)

This bridge was built 100 years ago. 这座桥是100年前建的。(不知道谁建的)

Passive voice with 'by'

在被动语态中,如果我们也要把动作的执行者表达出来的话,我们就在被动句子的后面,用 "by+动作的执行者(宾格)"来表示。

e.g. Jack broke the window. (主动语态)

The window was broken by Jack. (被动语态) 窗户是被杰克打碎的。

Meals are cooked by her mother at home. 在家饭是她母亲烧的。

The book was written by him several years ago. 这本书是他几年前写的。

3.难点:

1). 当一个含有复合宾语(宾语+宾补)的句子变为被动语态时, 只能把宾语变为被动语态的主语,宾补还放在原来的位置。

e.g. We call him Xiao Wang.--- He is called Xiao Wang.

He cut his hair short.--- His hair was cut short.

2). 带双宾语的动词变为被动语态时, 常常把间接宾语变为被动语态的主语;如果直接宾语变为被动语态的主语时,间接宾语前要加介词to或 for.

e.g. Someone gave the boy an apple.-- The boy was given an apple.

An apple was given to the boy.

His mother bought a present for him.--- He was bought a present.

A present was bought for him.

3). 在let, hear, watch, see, help, have 等词的句子中,主动语态不加to, 被动语态要加 to.

e.g. The boss makes us work 12 hours a day.--- We are made to work 12 hours a day.

They heard the children sing that morning.--- The children were heard to sing that morning.

⑤直接引语是祈使句,根据说话语气变成ask/tell/order warn sb. to do sth.的结构。例:

She said to me, "Stand up."→

She asked me to stand up.

Father said to his son, "Don't play football in the street."→

Father told his son not to play football in the street.

句式句型

Unit 1

1. They go as fast as they can.

as…as sb. (one) can = as …as possible 尽可能地……

as…as中间加原级的形容词或副词。例:

I will work as hard as I can. 我将尽可能努力工作。

He ran as fast as he could. 他拼命地跑。

Please come here as soon as you can. 请尽快来这里。

2. We call the first Olympic Games the "ancient" Olympics.

我们把早期的运动会叫做"古代"奥运会。

call sb. / sth. +n. 称呼某人/某物……,后面的名词作宾语补足语。

例:We call the boy DaMao. 我们称呼那个男孩大毛。

类似于这种可以用名词或名词短语作宾语补足语的动词有:

name/call/make/choose/find/think等。例:

We chose him our monitor at yesterday's class meeting.

昨天班会我们选他当我们的班长。

I find him a clever boy. 我觉得他是个聪明的孩子。

3. It seemed that Zhuang Yong and Jenny Thompson, an American swimmer, had finished at the same time.

看上去好像庄泳和美国游泳选手詹尼·汤姆森同时游完全程。

以下几种方式可以表示"看起来……,似乎……"

It seems that +从句

seem to be +adj.

seem +adj.

例:Danny seemed excited. (Danny seemed to be excited.)

丹尼似乎很激动。

seem to do sth.

例:When his wife's pet cat died, Alan didn't seem to care at all.

艾伦妻子的宠猫死了,他好象一点也不在乎。

4. Diving is one of the most popular events at the Olympics.

潜水是奥运会最受欢迎的项目之一。

one of… ……其中之一,后常加最高级及名词复数。例:

Changjiang is one of the longest rivers in the world.

长江是世界最长的河流之一。

5. Make your country proud. 使你的国家因你而自豪。

proud作宾语补足语,修饰宾语your country;

make的用法:

make the bed 铺床 make tea 沏茶

make dumplings 包饺子 make a car 制造汽车

be made of 由……制成

make sb. /sth. +n. 使某人/某物成为……

made sb. /sth. +adj. 使某人/某物如何……

make sb. /sth. do 使某人/某物做某事

名词/形容词/do (不定式,省to),作宾语补足语。

6. …his team came in twentieth. 他的队第二十名。

twentieth 第二十

整十数的序数词,变y为ie加th。例:

ninety→ninetieth fifty→fiftieth

7. We had such an interesting day at school today.

我们今天在学校度过了这么有趣的一天。

这句话也可以说成:We had so interesting a day at school today.

such和so意思都是"如此……/这样……",但用法不同。

It is so interesting a film that we all want to see it once more.

它是如此有趣的电影,我们都想再看一遍。

Thanks a lot for sending me such beautiful pictures by e-mail!

多谢你用e-mail给我发来这么漂亮的图片。

He is so weak that he can't work on.

他如此虚弱以致不能再继续工作。

8. If I don't. I won't be able to sleep tonight.

如果我不写下来的话,我今晚睡不着觉。

此句是if构成的条件状语从句,要用一般现在时代替将来时。

I'll go to the park with my friends if it doesn't rain tomorrow.

如果明天不下雨,我要和朋友去公园。

9. If he practises walking on pizzas, he'll do better next time.

如果他保持练习在比萨饼上走的话,下次他会表现好一些。

finish, enjoy, practise, keep, mind后常加动名词作宾语。例:

You'd better practise speaking English both in and after class.

你最好在课上课下练习说英语。

Unit 2

1. Our class could play soccer for a week without stopping.

我们班同学可以踢一周足球不休息。

without 介词,with的反义词,后加名词、代词或doing形式的动词,有时可以用if从句改写。例:

Without having breakfast, he hurried to school.

他没有吃早饭,匆忙上学去了。

Fish can't live without water. 没有水鱼不能活。

If there is no water, fish can't live.

2. That's very kind of you. 你真是太好了。

还可以说:That's very nice of you.

3. Wouldn't we get tired? 我们不会累吗?

此句是否定形式的一般疑问句,常用来表惊讶、责备、赞叹等语气。例:

Isn't it beautiful? 它不漂亮吗? (It is beautiful!)

注意答语:Yes, it is. 不,漂亮

No, it isn't. 是的,不漂亮。

Can't you come earlier? 你不能早来吗?(责备)

4. The Great Wall of China is more than 7,240 kilometres long.

中国的长城长7,240多公里。

It is +数字+单+形容词是一个固定句式,用来表达某物(人)多高/长/宽/深等。例:

The river is 10 metres deep.

这条河深10米。

The old man is seventy years old. 这个老人70岁。

Our room is 5 metres wide. 我们教室宽5米。

通常这样的句子可以用how+形容词+一般问句构成特殊疑问句。例:

How wide is your room?

How deep is the river?

5. On average, it weighs more than 26 tons.

平均,它(鲸)重26吨多。

weigh 动词,重……多少。

weight n. 重量。例:

The desk weighs 10 kilos. 这书桌重10公斤。

The weight of the desk is 10 kilos.

The desk is 10 kilos heavy.

6. The average blue whale is about four times as big as the biggest elephant.

平均蓝鲸是最大的大象的四倍。

four times as+原级+as 是……的几倍 例:

This room is three times as big as that one.

This is twice bigger than that one.

times是倍数,有时也可以当"次数"讲。例:

I have been to the Great Wall twice.

7. Does anyone have any other ideas?

有人有别的主意吗?

any other 用在肯定句中后常加单数名词。

any other 在疑问句和否定句中加复数名词。例:

The boy is taller than any other boy in his class.

这个男孩比他班里任何别的男孩都高。

I don't want any other oranges. 我不要任何别的桔子。

8. I have some more. 我有更多一些。

some more 更多一些,后加可数或不可数名词。

much more 后加不可数名词

进行英语语法的学习过程中,一定要做好英语的笔记,毕竟后期复习上英语笔记是非常重要的,而且也能够让复习变得更轻松。

many more 后加可数名词复数

I want many more books. 我想要更多的书。

9. It's a man who can ride his bicycle backwards while playing the violin.

那是一个能边拉小提琴边倒骑车的人。

while (when) 当……时,时间状语从句。

当从句的主语和主句的主语一致或是it时,在时间、条件、让步从句中且从句中的谓语动词含有be时,则可以省略从句的主语和be。例:

I will go to visit Beijing if (it is) possible.

Although (I am) ugly, I am gentle.

尽管我丑,我很温柔。

通过以上知识点的学习,大家要做好相关的笔记,这样在复习学习的时候才会更有效果,而且也要养成记笔记的好习惯,这样学习起来也会更加的轻松。

领取学习报告+1对1个性化辅导试听课

  • 获取验证码

网站地图 | 全国免费咨询热线: | 咨询时间:8:00-23:00(节假日不休)

违法和不良信息举报电话:400-810-5688 举报邮箱:info@xueda.com 学大Xueda.com 版权所有

增值电信业务经营许可证京B2-20100091 电信与信息服务业务经营许可证京ICP证100956